Writing Guide

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1  Abstract

It is used to introduce briefly why you want to carry out this research (background), what questions do you want to answer (purpose), how do you carry out the research (method), what have you found (results: main data, correlation), and your interpretation of the research findings and main results (conclusion). The content of the paper (including all keywords) must be reflected in the abstract, because for most readers, the abstract is their main source of information about your research. The research report must use a "reporting summary", which should include the actual results. In other papers that cover a wide range, such as reviews, an indicative abstract should be used, that is only the main topics discussed in the paper are listed, but no specific results are given. Do not given graphs in the abstract, because the abstract will also be published in a separate form. Do not mention references in the abstract, unless it is absolutely necessary (in this case, you should provide detailed information in brackets: author, title, year of publication, etc.). The author must ensure that all information in the abstract appears in the main text.

2  Introduction

The introduction should state:

(1) The reason, purpose and background of the research.

(2) Theoretical basis, experimental basis and research methods.

(3) Expected research results and their functions and significance.

The writing should be straightforward, concise, and focused.

3  Experimental method

Describe in detail how the research was conducted. All factors that may affect the results should be considered. If you have cited methods described in unavailable publications, please describe them in detail in the manuscript.

4  Result

The latest results of research should be provided (previously published data should not appear in this section). All the charts should be mentioned in order in the main text. The test results and data statistical analysis methods used should be ensured to be appropriate. It is strictly forbidden to falsify and distort data, and do not exclude any important data. Do not "deliberate processing" the graph so as not to give readers a wrong impression. "Deliberate processing" of data can cause scientific research fraud.

5  Discussion

In this section the questions involved in the research (usually asked in the last part of the introduction) should be answered. You can compare your new findings with published papers and be as objective as possible. Explore the limitations of experimental methods and focus on your main findings. At the end of the discussion, or another section, emphasize your main conclusions and explain the practical significance of this research.

6  Conclusion

Mainly narrate the conclusions of this research. Do not need to describe the process of deriving the conclusions, and do not self-evaluate the research content or research level. The conclusion echoes the introduction.


1. Every uncommon or unclear term that appears in the text should be defined when it first appears. Once a term has been recognized by academic organizations, it should be used first in academic exchanges.

2. The units used in the text should usually be given priority to international units.

3. The paper should be clear and concise to save time for reviewers and readers.

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